Tag Archives: train

Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014

As discussed with the presentation of the full unedited Westerbork Film recently (Ref. 1), the collection of the film footage was started in 1946 by the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation).

According to the inventory of the RIOD from 1958 – when the film reels were handed over to the Nederlands Filmmuseum (Dutch Film Museum) – the Westerbork Film (https://youtu.be/8E-IWGjbGZM ) basically consisted of 9 film reels ; and that inventory also mentioned a 10th reel (‘reel 9a’) with scenes of a ‘church service’ and ‘disassembly workshop for motors’. That reel was never again mentioned after 1958, had disappeared, but was rediscovered in the Film Museum with catalog number F1015 during research in the 1990s (Ref. 2). That story and the footage F1015 ( https://youtu.be/-SmYdFLG5N8 ) was posted yesterday (Ref. 3).

That catalog of the Dutch Film Museum also mentioned a 2nd film reel (F1014) with hitherto unknown footage, described as in dutch ‘Restmateriaal, bevattende (o.a.) animatie met voetbal, voorstelling met muziek, het trekken van kiepwagens op rails met paarden. Afvalmateriaal, vermoedelijk origineel uitschot.’ – which translates to ‘Residual material, including (among other things) animation with football, performance with music, pulling tippers on rails with horses. Waste material, presumably original waste.’

Actually very interesting footage demonstrating that Rudolf Breslauer was filming the animation and intertitles (title cards) as listed in the film scenario (pore on that later in another post). Here that unedited (upscaled) footage of F1014.


1. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 5. Westerbork Film – full version (RVD). Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 15). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

2. ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen); ISBN 9023232658

3. Michel van der Burg. 2019 June 15. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Netherlands : Michel van der Burg | Settela.com ; (accessed 2019 Jun 16). Short-link https://wp.me/p91enH-2a


EN – Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Scaled, cropped, otherwise unedited footage F1014.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1014) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 RG-60.2105 – License Free – Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Westerbork Film ~ full version (RVD)

Jun 7, 2019 Update | mettre à jour – section française – >> site Settela.com

The Westerbork Film – a silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed 75 years ago, spring 1944, in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’.

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco.

Iconic is the image of Settela – the girl with the headscarf -between the wagon doors of the deportation train to Auschwitz.
These few seconds are shown in the 1 minute slow-motion film Settela at Settela.com.

Images of the deportation train have been used in many documentaries over the years – such as our 2012 documentary ‘Transport XX to Auschwitz’.

Actually , however, the Westerbork film has as yet not been presented online or elsewhere as a full film – only in parts : as either Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , or Acte 4 for download or for streaming separately , either in low quality, small format (and generally just Acte 1) or with a rough overall edit (color-exposure grading) resulting in loss of details.
I therefore decided to first present the full film , all 4 episodes , unedited except for cropping black bars, as the : Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD…and later focus on adaptations.

What is known as the Westerbork Film , actually is a simple montage of the available raw film footage – 9 reels of film – handed over by the (Dutch) Filmmuseum in 1986 to the Dutch National Centre for Information (the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, RVD).
The RVD conservator glued together these available fragments – and this ‘product’ in 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) has become known as the “Westerbork film”.
Reels number 1 and 2 were glued together in ‘Acte 1’, reels 3 and 4 in Acte 2, reels 5 and 6 in Acte 3, and reels 7, 8 and 9 in Acte 4 (see below).

Conservation of footage

In the early years after the war, the Westerbork film footage travelled via different routes, roughly, in part leaving the camp with ex camp commander Gemmeker, and another part ‘directly’ from the camp … to land partly in the nearby Drents Museum and partly in eg. the Department of Justice and next finally in a collection started in 1946 in the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation) – now ‘NIOD’ – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and fragments were extracted too, and lent for use eg. in the 1948 trial against Rauter, the trial against Gemmeker, and for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by Loe de Jong (journalist, historian, and RIOD director from 1945-1979). For conservation this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan in 1958 to the Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum), and in 1986 the footage went to the RVD.

The RVD did not receive all footage from the Filmmuseum – the fragments extracted by the RIOD for use in the trials and TV series were lacking and two reels just remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Tracing extracted fragments , and the discovery of new images

Reel D1596 – The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels – see the recent post 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com .
Also , not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item. That ‘Polygoon’ footage copied onto 35 mm film – both the used and non-used fragments – were kept in the Dutch Filmmusuem on a so-called reel number D1596.

Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) – Reference 1 – traced the extracted film fragments, and further re-discovered film fragments with comparatively poorer quality on two reels – F1015 and F1014 :

Reel F1015 — F1015 (known till 1958 as reel 9a ; but actually the 10th reel of the Westerbork film) contains 9 scenes including 2 new scenes (not in the RVD Westerbork film): the religious service held March 5, 1944 in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall) and the scene of a woman on a ladder working on a signpost. This reel had remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Reel F1014 seemed lost in the archives of the Filmmuseum and was denoted then ‘Afvalmateriaal/uitschot’ , that is ‘Trash’.

All footage is now kept at the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound .

Below list of shots of the Westerbork Film (Ref. 2) :

Westerbork (Reel 1), (cat.nr. 02-1167-01), 16 mm, mute, 21’05 “

– 1. Inbound transport from Amsterdam, March 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Inbound transport from Vught, March 20, 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Outbound transport to Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz, 19 May. 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. In and around the aircraft dismantling workshop, April / May 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 2), (cat.nr. 02-1167-02), 16 mm, mute, 21’41 “

– 5. Disassembly of old batteries and manufacture of new batteries, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 6. Separation of different layers of aluminum foil, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Clothing Company, April / May 1944: 2 min 51 sec.
– 8. Toy factory, April / May 1944: 3 min 28 sec.
– 9. Manufacture of furniture, April / May 1944: 2 min 14 sec.
– 10. Metalworker / Forge worker, April / May 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Manufacture of brushes, April / May 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Shoe repair, April / May 1944: 1 min 38 sec.
– 13. Manufacture of handbags, April / May 1944: 1 min 09 sec.
– 14. Manufacture of soles and gloves, April / May 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Weaving and repairing stockings, April / May 1944: 1 min 25 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 3), (cat.nr. 02-1167-03), 16 mm, mute, 18’03 “

– 16. Cufflinks Factory, April / May 1944: 1 min 16 sec.
– 17. Clothing, April / May 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Laundry / ironing, April / May 1944: 1 min 18 sec.
– 19. Medical Laboratory, April / May 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Dental Clinic, April / May 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Unloading equipment for the construction of barracks / unloading trucks with bricks, April / May 1944: 1 min 33 sec.
– 22. Construction / installation of greenhouse and watering plants in greenhouse, April / May 1944: 1 min 46 sec.
– 23. By narrow gauge at Oranjekanaal / construction of jetty / unloading cargo ship with bricks / truck loading / return to camp, April / May 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Visit to the farm, April / May 1944: 4 min 39 sec

Westerbork (Reel 4), (cat.nr. 02-1167-04), 16 mm, mute, 21’30 “

– 25.Visit on the farm (continued), April / May 1944: 2 min 30 sec.
– 26. Return / visit agriculture / plowing and planting potatoes, April / May 1944: 4 min 20 sec.
– 27. Return to camp / unloading truck bricks, April / May 1944:
– 28. Construction of the purification plant, April / May 1944:
– 29. Slaughtering and harvesting trees near Assen, April / May 1944: 4 min 50 sec.
– 30. Religious Service in the Great Hall, March 5, 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Football match at the venue, April / May 1944: 2 min 04 sec.
– 32. Female gymnastics, April / May 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Gala evening and cabaret Bunter Abend in the Great Hall, April / May 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

Rudolf Breslauer and family

Rudolf Breslauer (1904-1944) was in Westerbork for over two and a half years with his wife Bella Weismann, daughter Ursula, and sons Mischa and Stephan.
In Sep 1944 they were transported to Auschwitz via Theresiënstadt, and murdered in the gas chamber, except Ursula who survived the war and went to Israel in 1948, where she and her husband Chaim Moses set up their own company. Her name has since been Chanita Moses – she has children and many grandchildren.


1 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658
2. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 86-88.


‘Westerbork Film’ , montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat.nrs. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .


20190605 – Updates including the other footage and more information will follow in both this post and new posts on the Settala.com site.

Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

NL >> nederlands | dutch >>

First time use of Westerbork film in 1948 in Dutch cinema news (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) of the trial in The Hague of Hanns A. Rauter, an Austrian who was the highest SS official in Nazi-occupied Holland and who was tasked with setting up the camps in Westerbork and other dutch cities, and the arrests , internment and deportation of Dutch Jews and other groups of Dutch people , Roma, Sinti, resistance workers.
The chairman of the court is mr. P.G.M. van Meeuwen; attorney-at-law is mr. J. Zaayer, defender (added) is mr. K. van Rijckevorsel.
Rauter – before leaving the courtroom – speaks: ‘Ich habe mich niemals schuldig gefühlt’ (I never felt guilty).
The next year Rauter was executed by firing squad nearby the The Hague – Scheveningen prison. Polygoon weekly cinema news April 1948, Netherlands.
Source film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Images) Film 20190520 Michel van der Burg | Settela.com
20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

NL (dutch)

Westerbork Film in Proces Rauter 1948

De eerste keer dat de Westerbork film wordt gebruikt , in 1948, in het Nederlandse bioscoopnieuws (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) van het proces in Den Haag van Hanns A. Rauter, een Oostenrijker die de hoogste SS-functionaris was in het door de nazi’s bezette Nederland en die belast was met het opzetten van de kampen in Westerbork en andere Nederlandse steden, en de arrestaties, internering en deportatie van Nederlandse Joden en andere groepen Nederlanders, Roma, Sinti, verzetsmensen.
Voorzitter van het hof is jhr. mr. P.G.M. van Meeuwen; procureur-fiscaal is mr. J. Zaayer; verdediger (toegevoegd) is mr. K. van Rijckevorsel.
Rauter – voor het verlaten van de rechtszaal – zegt: ‘Ich habe mich niemals schuldig gefühlt’ (Ik heb me nooit schuldig gevoeld).
Het jaar daarop (1949) werd Rauter geëxecuteerd door een vuurpeloton in de buurt van de gevangenis van Den Haag – Scheveningen. Polygoon Weekjournaal April 1948, Nederland.
Bron film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Beelden) Film 20190520 Michel van der Burg | Settela.com
Bron film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Images). 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

Settela ~ Settela.com

Settela peeks outside the death train to Auschwitz.
Last glance at the outside world for the 9-year-old Dutch Sinti girl Settela Steinbach just before these cattle car doors close , and this death train heads for Auschwitz on May 19 , 1944.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland (75 people the moment the train leaves), when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers.
Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the Jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp.
In 2017 I made two other short films of this moment (20170721 and 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Today 75 years later, on the occasion of the opening of the site Settela.com this new 1 minute slow-motion film (4:3 format) using the original Westerbork 1944 film rushes of Rudolf Breslauer from the archive of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images). 20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

Speech in Showers ~ Transport XX

It rained April 19th, 1943 – and it rained cats and dogs for a moment during the 2019 commemoration of Transport XX last sunday in Boortmeerbeek , Belgium. ① memo 20190507 ~ Speech in Showers ~ Transport XX

XXth Transport to Auschwitz ~ Marc Michiels & Mark Van den Wijngaert

The present has its past. Presentation of new unique book of a study of Transport XX by author Marc Michiels yesterday during the commemoration of Transport XX – May 5, 2019 in Boortmeerbeek, Belgium.
“Het XXste transport naar Auschwitz” (the XXth transport to Auschwitz) is the 2nd (revised and expanded) edition of this detailed dutch work (ISBN
9789059089808 ) published last month by the two authors Marc Michiels and Mark Van den Wijngaert.

On the night of April 19, 1943 the XXth Transport departs from the Dossinkazerne in Mechelen with 1631 Jewish men, women and children heading for Auschwitz. Armed with one revolver, and a storm lamp covered with red tissue paper, three young men manage to stop the train between Boortmeerbeek and Haacht and free seventeen prisoners.

This rescue operation by George Livschitz, Robert Maistriau and Jean Franklemon is unique in the history of the Holocaust. Even before the train reaches the Belgian border, more than two hundred prisoners can escape. Some of them are shot, others are arrested again by the Nazis, but most escape the fate that awaits them in Auschwitz.

The book describes the escapes from the XXth Transport, how the transport was put together and what would happen to the vast majority of deportees. The countless testimonies confront the reader with the racial destructiveness of the Nazis and tell how some people barely managed to escape.

Marc is dreaming now of an English and or French translation of his dutch book…

Music by the Crescendo Boortmeerbeek Choir.

① memo 20190506 ~ XXth Transport to Auschwitz ~ Marc Michiels & Mark Van den Wijngaert

Royal Brass Band Albert

Koninklijke Fanfare Albert (Royal Brass Band Albert) during today’s commemoration of Transport XX in Boortmeerbeek , Belgium. ① memo 20190505 ~ Royal Brass Band Albert