Tag Archives: Settela

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland


① memo 20190808 ~ RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland ~ In the first years after the war, the National Institute for War Documentation in Holland , known as the ‘RIOD’ – Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie – started collecting original documents about the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies during the Second World War. In addition to collecting and organising all these documents RIOD also did research, performed historical studies into the Second World War and the Holocaust. In 1946 the RIOD started the collection of the footage filmed by the Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer spring 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp.
Here in this Polygoon cinema newsreel week 3 in 1948 the RIOD’s director Loe de Jong gives the dutch cinema public a look behind the scenes of the RIOD institute.

Credit info :

RIOD 1948 ~ National Institute for War Documentation in Holland
Source 1948 Polygoon newsreel week 3, 1948 (WEEKNUMMER480-HRE0000DED7_1757240_1937680) courtesy of Polygoon Hollands Nieuws (producer) / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (OpenImages, public domain).
RIOD 1948 (20190808) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin


① memo 20190805 ~ Mare Manuschenge ~ Music Roma Memorial Berlin ~ Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism – located between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany – filmed in 2013.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

The memorial by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

At the site you hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
Karavan : „dem Klang einer einsamen Geige allein geblieben von der gemordeten Melodie, schwebend im Schmerz“

Romeo Franz:
Romani Rose, the chairman of the Central Council of the Sinti and Roma, called me in 2012 and said he was looking for a violinist who could play just one single note at the ceremony. I tried, but at some point I couldn’t stand this note any longer. Instead I imitated a whistle that Sinti often use to call their children. It’s a sound that each of us recognise, it’s a bit like a mark of identification, a signal. Then I transposed it onto the gypsy minor scale. Shortly before the memorial was completed, I met with Dani Caravan, the Israeli architect who designed the memorial, at the construction site, and he said, “That’s it!” For me, it was possibly the most significant thing I’ve ever achieved in my life.
From : The Handreader’s Tale via https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Note
Yesterday – August 4, 2019 – a more subjective short film impression of the memorial was posted see ① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~ https://settela.com/2019/08/04/porajmos-memorial-sinti-roma-europe/ More information on this memorial also in that 20190804 post.

Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe

① memo 20190804 ~ Porajmos Memorial Sinti Roma Europe ~
Memorial to the Sinti and Roma Victims of National Socialism, filmed in 2013 in the Tiergarten (close to other Holocaust memorials) in Berlin – between the Reichstag and the Brandenburg Gate, in Germany.

The monument is dedicated to the memory of the estimated 500,000 European Roma and Sinti that were murdered during the Holocaust – called Porajmos or Pharrajimos in the Romani language (“the Devouring” or “Destruction”) – the genocide of the European Sinti and Roma peoples by the German Nazis and their fascist allies ( http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home ).

August 2 is European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day commemorating this genocide of Roma people during World War II. Declared by the European Parliament in 2015 (Resolution 2015/2615), the day marks the anniversary of the extermination of around 3,000 Roma at Auschwitz-Birkenau during the night of 2 August 1944. The so-called Gypsy Camp in the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration and extermination camp was dissolved – or “liquidated,” as the SS called it.

Settela Steinbach (9) was one of those murdered early August 1944, now 75 years ago.

The memorial (by the Israeli artist Dani Karavan) consists of a circular pool of water with a triangular stone in the center (not shown in this film) upon which a fresh flower is placed daily.

Poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli

In a ring around the pond in English and German – and in two Romani dialects on a stone – are the words of the poem “Auschwitz” by Santino Spinelli (artist name Alexian), a Rom from the Abruzzi region of Italy – a musician, poet, teacher, composer and essayist.

Auschwitz (Original)
Muj šukkó, kjá kalé vušt šurde; kwit. Jilo čindó bi dox, bi lav, nikt ruvbé.

Auschwitz (Sinti-Romanes)
Drenperdo Mui, phagede Jakha, schiel Wuschtia; Pokunipen. Phagedo Dschi, kek Ducho, kek Labensa, kek Asvia.

Auschwitz (Deutsch)
Eingefallenes Gesicht, erloschene Augen, kalte Lippen. Stille. Ein zerrissenes Herz, ohne Atem, ohne Worte, keine Tränen.

Auschwitz (English)
Pallid face, dead eyes, cold lips. Silence. A broken heart without breath, without words, no tears.

Music “Mare Manuschenge” by Romeo Franz

At the site you faintly hear the sound, a note of a lonely violin from a composition/sound installation titled “Mare Manuschenge” / “Our People” by Romeo Franz, a Sinto musician, composer and politician in Germany.
The sound in this film I posted is mixed from several video recordings there, with the emphasis on the sound from one video of one of the loudspeakers in the surrounding trees.

Bibliography

Online Teaching Resource for Genocide of Sinti and Roma , Site – Roma Sinti Genocide – http://www.romasintigenocide.eu/en/home
Reference from the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) – https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/educational-materials/online-teaching-resource-genocide-sinti-and-roma )

Genocide of the Roma – International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA)
https://www.holocaustremembrance.com/genocide-of-the-roma

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day – European Parliament Resolution 2015/2615(RSP) – Text P8_TA(2015)0095 available as PDF via http://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/TA-8-2015-0095_EN.pdf )

Deutsche Welle or DW – Germany’s public international broadcaster – https://www.dw.com/en/75-years-ago-nazis-carry-out-mass-murder-of-sinti-and-roma-people-in-auschwitz/a-49874353

European Roma Holocaust Memorial Day: Statement by First Vice-President Timmermans and Commissioner Jourová
Brussels, 1 August 2019 – STATEMENT-19-4869_EN
https://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_STATEMENT-19-4869_en.htm

The Roma Holocaust Memorial That Wasn’t Built in a Day
Israeli sculptor Dani Karavan has left no stone unturned in his efforts to build his gypsy Holocaust memorial in Berlin.
by Ofer Aderet / HAARETZ Sep 14, 2012
https://www.haaretz.com/the-roma-memorial-that-wasn-t-built-in-a-day-1.5162513

Memorial to the Sinti and Roma of Europe Murdered under the National Socialist Regime
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial.html#c952

Dani Karavan
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/dani-karavan.html

Poem by Italian Rom Santino Spinelli
https://www.stiftung-denkmal.de/en/memorials/sinti-and-roma-memorial/poem-by-santino-spinelli.html

Newess 1|13
http://www.sintiundroma.de/uploads/media/Newess_1_2013_web_DS.pdf

Santino Spinelli – RomArchive
https://www.romarchive.eu/en/collection/p/santino-spinelli/

Music by Romeo Franz
The Greens/EFA – Welcome Tilly Metz and Romeo Franz
https://www.greens-efa.eu/en/article/press/welcome-tilly-metz-and-romeo-franz/
The Handreader’s Tale
https://www.kulturstiftung-des-bundes.de/en/magazine/magazine_26-1/the_handreaders_tale.html

Notes

Major update August 5, 2019 with corrections, more details including poem languages and now a bibliography

Westerbork Film ~ full version (RVD)

Jun 7, 2019 Update | mettre à jour – section française – >> site Settela.com

The Westerbork Film – a silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed 75 years ago, spring 1944, in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’.

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco.

Iconic is the image of Settela – the girl with the headscarf -between the wagon doors of the deportation train to Auschwitz.
These few seconds are shown in the 1 minute slow-motion film Settela at Settela.com.

Images of the deportation train have been used in many documentaries over the years – such as our 2012 documentary ‘Transport XX to Auschwitz’.

Actually , however, the Westerbork film has as yet not been presented online or elsewhere as a full film – only in parts : as either Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , or Acte 4 for download or for streaming separately , either in low quality, small format (and generally just Acte 1) or with a rough overall edit (color-exposure grading) resulting in loss of details.
I therefore decided to first present the full film , all 4 episodes , unedited except for cropping black bars, as the : Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD…and later focus on adaptations.

What is known as the Westerbork Film , actually is a simple montage of the available raw film footage – 9 reels of film – handed over by the (Dutch) Filmmuseum in 1986 to the Dutch National Centre for Information (the Rijksvoorlichtingsdienst, RVD).
The RVD conservator glued together these available fragments – and this ‘product’ in 4 parts (Acte 1 , Acte 2 , Acte 3 , and Acte 4) has become known as the “Westerbork film”.
Reels number 1 and 2 were glued together in ‘Acte 1’, reels 3 and 4 in Acte 2, reels 5 and 6 in Acte 3, and reels 7, 8 and 9 in Acte 4 (see below).

Conservation of footage

In the early years after the war, the Westerbork film footage travelled via different routes, roughly, in part leaving the camp with ex camp commander Gemmeker, and another part ‘directly’ from the camp … to land partly in the nearby Drents Museum and partly in eg. the Department of Justice and next finally in a collection started in 1946 in the ‘RIOD’ Rijksinstituut voor Oorlogsdocumentatie (National Institute for War Documentation) – now ‘NIOD’ – Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies.
The RIOD glued fragments together probably, and fragments were extracted too, and lent for use eg. in the 1948 trial against Rauter, the trial against Gemmeker, and for use in the 60s dutch TV series ‘De bezetting’ (The Occupation) presented by Loe de Jong (journalist, historian, and RIOD director from 1945-1979). For conservation this ‘RIOD film’ went on loan in 1958 to the Filmmuseum (now EYE Film Museum), and in 1986 the footage went to the RVD.

The RVD did not receive all footage from the Filmmuseum – the fragments extracted by the RIOD for use in the trials and TV series were lacking and two reels just remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Tracing extracted fragments , and the discovery of new images

Reel D1596 – The 1948 Dutch Polygoon cinema news extracts were not all assembled back in the Westerbork film reels – see the recent post 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948 at settela.com .
Also , not all footage given on loan for that ‘Polygoon news’ ended up in that news item. That ‘Polygoon’ footage copied onto 35 mm film – both the used and non-used fragments – were kept in the Dutch Filmmusuem on a so-called reel number D1596.

Research published in the 1997 Dutch book ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658) – Reference 1 – traced the extracted film fragments, and further re-discovered film fragments with comparatively poorer quality on two reels – F1015 and F1014 :

Reel F1015 — F1015 (known till 1958 as reel 9a ; but actually the 10th reel of the Westerbork film) contains 9 scenes including 2 new scenes (not in the RVD Westerbork film): the religious service held March 5, 1944 in the Grote Zaal (Great Hall) and the scene of a woman on a ladder working on a signpost. This reel had remained in the Filmmuseum vault.

Reel F1014 seemed lost in the archives of the Filmmuseum and was denoted then ‘Afvalmateriaal/uitschot’ , that is ‘Trash’.

All footage is now kept at the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound .

Below list of shots of the Westerbork Film (Ref. 2) :

Westerbork (Reel 1), (cat.nr. 02-1167-01), 16 mm, mute, 21’05 “

– 1. Inbound transport from Amsterdam, March 1944: 1 min 37 sec.
– 2. Inbound transport from Vught, March 20, 1944: 2 min 09 sec.
– 3. Outbound transport to Bergen-Belsen and Auschwitz, 19 May. 1944: 4 min 41 sec.
– 4. In and around the aircraft dismantling workshop, April / May 1944: 11 min 23 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 2), (cat.nr. 02-1167-02), 16 mm, mute, 21’41 “

– 5. Disassembly of old batteries and manufacture of new batteries, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 6. Separation of different layers of aluminum foil, April / May 1944: 1 min 22 sec.
– 7. Clothing Company, April / May 1944: 2 min 51 sec.
– 8. Toy factory, April / May 1944: 3 min 28 sec.
– 9. Manufacture of furniture, April / May 1944: 2 min 14 sec.
– 10. Metalworker / Forge worker, April / May 1944, 2 min 47 sec.
– 11. Manufacture of brushes, April / May 1944: 43 sec.
– 12. Shoe repair, April / May 1944: 1 min 38 sec.
– 13. Manufacture of handbags, April / May 1944: 1 min 09 sec.
– 14. Manufacture of soles and gloves, April / May 1944: 33 sec.
– 15. Weaving and repairing stockings, April / May 1944: 1 min 25 sec.

Westerbork (Reel 3), (cat.nr. 02-1167-03), 16 mm, mute, 18’03 “

– 16. Cufflinks Factory, April / May 1944: 1 min 16 sec.
– 17. Clothing, April / May 1944: 32 sec.
– 18. Laundry / ironing, April / May 1944: 1 min 18 sec.
– 19. Medical Laboratory, April / May 1944: 45 sec.
– 20. Dental Clinic, April / May 1944: 25 sec.
– 21. Unloading equipment for the construction of barracks / unloading trucks with bricks, April / May 1944: 1 min 33 sec.
– 22. Construction / installation of greenhouse and watering plants in greenhouse, April / May 1944: 1 min 46 sec.
– 23. By narrow gauge at Oranjekanaal / construction of jetty / unloading cargo ship with bricks / truck loading / return to camp, April / May 1944: 4 min 33 sec.
– 24. Visit to the farm, April / May 1944: 4 min 39 sec

Westerbork (Reel 4), (cat.nr. 02-1167-04), 16 mm, mute, 21’30 “

– 25.Visit on the farm (continued), April / May 1944: 2 min 30 sec.
– 26. Return / visit agriculture / plowing and planting potatoes, April / May 1944: 4 min 20 sec.
– 27. Return to camp / unloading truck bricks, April / May 1944:
– 28. Construction of the purification plant, April / May 1944:
– 29. Slaughtering and harvesting trees near Assen, April / May 1944: 4 min 50 sec.
– 30. Religious Service in the Great Hall, March 5, 1944: 6 sec.
– 31. Football match at the venue, April / May 1944: 2 min 04 sec.
– 32. Female gymnastics, April / May 1944: 1 min.
– 33. Gala evening and cabaret Bunter Abend in the Great Hall, April / May 1944: 4 min 05 sec.

Rudolf Breslauer and family

Rudolf Breslauer (1904-1944) was in Westerbork for over two and a half years with his wife Bella Weismann, daughter Ursula, and sons Mischa and Stephan.
In Sep 1944 they were transported to Auschwitz via Theresiënstadt, and murdered in the gas chamber, except Ursula who survived the war and went to Israel in 1948, where she and her husband Chaim Moses set up their own company. Her name has since been Chanita Moses – she has children and many grandchildren.

References

1 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658
2. Gerard Rossing and Koert Boersma, Kamp Westerbork Gefilmd (1997), pp. 86-88.

Credit

‘Westerbork Film’ , montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat.nrs. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

Updates

20190605 – Updates including the other footage and more information will follow in both this post and new posts on the Settala.com site.

Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

NL >> nederlands | dutch >>

First time use of Westerbork film in 1948 in Dutch cinema news (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) of the trial in The Hague of Hanns A. Rauter, an Austrian who was the highest SS official in Nazi-occupied Holland and who was tasked with setting up the camps in Westerbork and other dutch cities, and the arrests , internment and deportation of Dutch Jews and other groups of Dutch people , Roma, Sinti, resistance workers.
The chairman of the court is mr. P.G.M. van Meeuwen; attorney-at-law is mr. J. Zaayer, defender (added) is mr. K. van Rijckevorsel.
Rauter – before leaving the courtroom – speaks: ‘Ich habe mich niemals schuldig gefühlt’ (I never felt guilty).
The next year Rauter was executed by firing squad nearby the The Hague – Scheveningen prison. Polygoon weekly cinema news April 1948, Netherlands.
Source film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Images) Film 20190520 Michel van der Burg | Settela.com
20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

NL (dutch)

Westerbork Film in Proces Rauter 1948

De eerste keer dat de Westerbork film wordt gebruikt , in 1948, in het Nederlandse bioscoopnieuws (Polygoon Hollands Nieuws) van het proces in Den Haag van Hanns A. Rauter, een Oostenrijker die de hoogste SS-functionaris was in het door de nazi’s bezette Nederland en die belast was met het opzetten van de kampen in Westerbork en andere Nederlandse steden, en de arrestaties, internering en deportatie van Nederlandse Joden en andere groepen Nederlanders, Roma, Sinti, verzetsmensen.
Voorzitter van het hof is jhr. mr. P.G.M. van Meeuwen; procureur-fiscaal is mr. J. Zaayer; verdediger (toegevoegd) is mr. K. van Rijckevorsel.
Rauter – voor het verlaten van de rechtszaal – zegt: ‘Ich habe mich niemals schuldig gefühlt’ (Ik heb me nooit schuldig gevoeld).
Het jaar daarop (1949) werd Rauter geëxecuteerd door een vuurpeloton in de buurt van de gevangenis van Den Haag – Scheveningen. Polygoon Weekjournaal April 1948, Nederland.
Bron film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Beelden) Film 20190520 Michel van der Burg | Settela.com
Bron film : Polygoon Hollands Nieuws / Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid (Open Images). 20190520 ~ Westerbork Film in ‘Proces Rauter’ 1948

Settela ~ Settela.com

Settela peeks outside the death train to Auschwitz.
Last glance at the outside world for the 9-year-old Dutch Sinti girl Settela Steinbach just before these cattle car doors close , and this death train heads for Auschwitz on May 19 , 1944.
Anna Maria ‘Settela’ Steinbach peeks outside , at the last moment just before the sliding door is closed , standing inside a freight wagon with 74 people on May 19 , 1944 in the Westerbork concentration camp in Holland (75 people the moment the train leaves), when this deportation train leaves for Auschwitz-Birkenau – where Settela is murdered a few months later in one of the gas chambers.
Here she wears a headscarf made from a torn sheet, because the Nazis had her head shaved , and while Settela peeks outside , her mother cries behind her in the car : “Get out of there, or soon your head gets in between!”
She was filmed by the Jewish prisoner filmmaker Rudolf Breslauer as part of a documentary film being made on the Westerbork camp.
In 2017 I made two other short films of this moment (20170721 and 20170725 michelvanderburg.com).
Today 75 years later, on the occasion of the opening of the site Settela.com this new 1 minute slow-motion film (4:3 format) using the original Westerbork 1944 film rushes of Rudolf Breslauer from the archive of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Open Images). 20190519 ~ Settela ~ Settela.com

Settela 1′


One minute slow-motion of the moment the 9-year-old Settela Steinbach peeks outside in the cattle car door opening on the Westerbork death train bound for Auschwitz – May 19 , 1944 . ① memo 20170725 Michel van der Burg – michelvanderburg.com | 1-memo.com
( unbranded version of video added today to the archives of The One Minutes / Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision )