Tag Archives: netherlands

Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945

Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945 .
(silent film)
My mother did not tell me much and no details on her experiences in World War 2, except for the Hongerwinter (“Hunger winter”) – the Dutch famine of 1944–45 – that she had to eat tulip bulbs.

As children in the 1950s our mother always told us to finish and clean our plates (and pretty large portions, served by our parents) , before being allowed to leave the table. The one thing we were regularly reminded of was the famine my mother and others had experienced…and that she even had to eat tulip bulbs – then a 16-year old teenager living (with her parents) in the city of The Hague during the Dutch famine of 1944–45.
The famine was caused by a German blockade plus the harsh winter blocking alternative water routes, that cut off food and fuel shipments to the western Netherlands were food stocks rapidly ran out in the large cities of The Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam . Tulip bulbs and sugar beets were commonly consumed. Trees in The Hague city woods (like Scheveningse Bosjes shown in the film) were cut , and in the end furniture and houses were dismantled to provide fuel for heating.
When the famine was worst and deaths were reaching a peak , the Bezuidenhout neighbourhood of The Hague – were my mothers family lived – was bombed by British bomber crews with the wrong coordinates flying in fog and clouds, causing widespread death and destruction. More on that ‘Bombing of the Bezuidenhout’ later this month.

Menno Huizinga (1907–1947) took photographs illegally during the occupation , mainly in his hometown The Hague in Holland. He was a member of the group of Dutch photographers ‘De Ondergedoken Camera’ (1943-1945) – The Underground Camera – doing resistance work during the Second World War.

‘Eating Tulip Bulbs ~ Hunger Winter Holland 1944-1945’ is a silent film by Michel van der Burg , using photographs captured during this ‘Hunger winter’ 1944-1945 by Menno Huizinga in Holland (mainly in The Hague) from the public domain collection of the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies , curated by Dutch Network War Collections (NOB) for WO2 Open Data Depot via Wikimedia Commons.

Credits
Photographs by Menno Huizinga, Holland 1944-1945 | NIOD | WO2 Open Data Depot | Wikimedia Commons.
Film : Eating Tulip Bulbs (20200325) by Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0

Perseides


Perseides ~ One Minute ~ Meteoroid streaks across the eastern sky just above the horizon one hour before dawn in Holland during the Perseid meteor shower August 13, 2016 at 2 AM UTC. One minute film produced March 10, 2020 for The One Minutes Collection.
Film : Perseides (20200310) Michel van der Burg | michelvanderburg.com | miracles.media

Miracles ~ One Minute


Miracles ~ One Minute ~ One hand playing with sunlight beams reflecting and passing scattered through melting ice – trying creating miracles – and the other hand on the other side holding the smartphone recording February 2018 in Holland. One minute film produced March 9, 2020 for The One Minutes Collection.
Film : Miracles (20200309) Michel van der Burg | michelvanderburg.com | miracles.media

Mirror

Mirror
Birds (gulls) in the sky reflecting on a flimsy sheet of meltwater over frozen pond recorded January 2016 in Holland. Film produced March 8, 2020 for The One Minutes Collection. Film : Mirror (20200308) Michel van der Burg | miracles.media

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM

Or watch the album as YouTube  playlist via this link

When the Westerbork camp was liberated in 1945 – 75 years ago – the Westerbork Film reels began a new life.

The Westerbork Films Collection – silent film – is unique…the only authentic documentary footage filmed in a Nazi camp – a waiting room for death in the Netherlands for more than 100,000 Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance workers. A documentary filmed in the spring of 1944 in the Westerbork transit camp, by the German-Jewish camp prisoner Rudolf Werner Breslauer, who had been working already some 2 years as a photographer in the camp. A ‘Kulturfilm’ commissioned by camp commander, SS-Obersturmbannführer, Albert Konrad Gemmeker, to convince the Gestapo headquarters of Westerbork’s vital production value.

The Westerbork camp had been set up by the Dutch government before the war in Holland, in 1939, as a central refugees camp for Jewish refugees from Nazi-Germany.
In 1942 , when the Nazi’s decided to start ‘Entjüdung’ of the Netherlands, they took over the camp and named it Polizeiliches Judendurchgangslager Westerbork , for use as central transit camp for deportation of mainly Jews, and Roma, Sinti, and resistance people to eastern Europe.

Rudolf Breslauer started filming March 1944 – around the same time the camp status changed to ‘Arbeitslager’.

This film on the daily life of the Westerbork prisoners was added in 2017 to the Memory of the World Register of Unesco.

Here a compilation (album) of the film reels listed in the Unesco Memory of the World registry of ‘Le film de Westerbork’ (Ref. 1) of all known Westerbork film footage shot by Rudolf Breslauer (Werner Rudolf Breslauer) in Camp Westerbork in 1944 – the inventory deposited in the Unesco Memory of the World Registry of documentary heritage in 2017.

This Westerbork Films Collection includes to the best of my knowledge all known footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 in Camp Westerbork, Netherlands – footage that I presented before via several posts in 2019 via my Youtube and Vimeo channels and web sites settela.com and michelvanderburg.com .
The compilation is based on the May 8, 2017 edition of UNESCO Memory of the World document ID code [2016-118] delivered by Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (Jan Müller & Hans van der Windt) and the NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (Frank van Vree). Research and reports by Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing on the Westerbork film footage formed the basis of the UNESCO documentation (Ref. 1,2,3,4).

This Unesco compilation is divided here for convenience in 3 main parts :

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 1

Westerbork 1986 Film (Acts 1,2,3,4)

This first part is the full film of the montage produced in 1986 by the Netherlands State Archive (RVD) – generally known as the Westerbork Film ‘ACTE’ 1, 2, 3, 4.

Published first June 5, 2019 as :
Westerbork Film ~ Full version RVD. Montage of the Westerbork reels 1-4 (RVD cat.nrs. 02-1167-01, 02-1167-02, 02-1167-03, 02-1167-04 courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | OpenImages). Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .
Ref. 5. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 2

Westerbork 1996 Film (Acts 1,2)

The second part is the alternative Westerbork film first presented in the Netherlands (TV Broadcasts) in 1996 – in 2 acts using the early 1990s (re-) discovered ‘rest’ footage reels labeled ‘OVERS’ in dutch (english : Left-Overs) and since presented as alternative Westerbork Film (OVERS) ACTE 1,2 or Rest material 1,2 .
This 1996 ‘alternative’ film includes both new scenes and scenes also present in the 1986 ‘RVD’ original Westerbork film.

Westerbork 1996 Film – Act 1 (OVERS – Rest 1)
Published June 16, 2019 as :
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014. Scaled, cropped, otherwise unedited footage F1014.
Source Beeld en Geluid (2-1167 | former cat.nr. F1014) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 RG-60.2105 – License Free – Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .
Ref. 6. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

Westerbork 1996 Film – Act 2 (OVERS – Rest 2)
Published June 15, 2019 as :
Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015. Scaled, otherwise unedited footage F1015.
Source Beeld en Geluid (former cat.nr. F1015) , accessed at US Holocaust Memorial Museum (copy Film ID 2242 – license Public Domain) , courtesy of Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944.
Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0
Ref. 7. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM – PART 3

Westerbork Film Fragments (Sources 1,2,3)

Part 3, the last part, is a compilation of all the clips recovered from footage cut out from original film (before the 1986 montage) and lent for use in : 1948 dutch cinema newsreels (Polygoon), and a 1962 dutch TV documentary. Containing – aside from known scenes – also original footage and copies (upscaled 35mm) of scenes never re-edited back into the Westerbork films.

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 1 : Polygoon newsreel 1948 Proces Rauter Note: Cinema newsreel Polygoon 1948 week 15 – ‘Proces Rauter’
Ref 8. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 2 : Polygoon newsreel 1948 #48298
Note: Cinema newsreel Polygoon 1948 – fragments used in cinema news and surplus fragments not used in the news.
Ref 9. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

Westerbork Film Fragments – Source 3 : NTS tv show 1962 Episode 9 The Occupation
Note: Dutch TV broadcast (NTS) Episode 9 of television show De Bezetting (Occupation) (1962).
Ref 10. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) https://wp.me/p91enH-2l

LIST OF SHOTS – SCENES

Details of the shots in the 1986 Westerbork film (Part 1 of this album) were posted before (Ref 5) and will be added here later.

TIMELINE

Total time documentary 1:53:35 (hr:min:sec)

Timeline

Part 1 act 1 – 0:00:06 | act 2 – 20:33 | act 3 – 42:26 | act 4 – 1:00:56

Part 2 act 1 – 1:22:27 | act 2 – 1:32:09

Part 3 source 1 – 1:45:06 | source 2 – 1:47:12 | source 3 – 1:53:11

REFERENCES

1. Unesco.org – Mémoire du monde – Le film de Westerbork
(accessed 20190605)
http://www.unesco.org/new/fr/communication-and-information/memory-of-the-world/register/full-list-of-registered-heritage/registered-heritage-page-9/westerbork-films/

2 Settela, gezicht van het verleden by Cherry Duyns (VPRO, 1994) documentary film

3 Settela, het meisje heeft haar naam terug (1995-2007) by
Aad Wagenaar ISBN 9789089751898 / English translation by Janna Eliot ‘Settela’ (2005-2016) ISBN 978-0-9933898-2-5

4 ‘Kamp Westerbork gefilmd’ by Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing (editors Dirk Mulder and Ben Prinsen; ISBN 9023232658

5. Westerbork Film (20190605) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-1x

6. Unknown Westerbork Film Reel…F1014 (20190616) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2b

7. Forgotten Westerbork Film Reel…F1015 (20190615) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2a

8. Westerbork Film Fragments…1948 Polygoon News (20190806) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2h

9. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film Clips…Polygoon Reel 48298 (20190807) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) URL: https://wp.me/p91enH-2i

10. Tracing Lost Westerbork Film…1960s RIOD-NTS clip (20190812) Michel van der Burg | Settela.com (accessed 2019 Dec 19) https://wp.me/p91enH-2l

CREDITS

WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM , courtesy of the : NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies (KNAW), and the Netherlands Institute of Image and Sound | OpenImages | Polygoon | NTS | NPO-VPRO | US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Footage filmed by Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Camp Westerbork, Netherlands.
Special thanks to Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma and Gerard Rossing for their Westerbork film footage research and reports that formed the UNESCO documentation.
Film : WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM (20200120) Michel van der Burg | Miracles.Media | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

NL – WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM, met dank aan het NIOD instituut voor oorlogs-, holocaust- en genocide studies (KNAW), en het Nederlands Instituut voor Beeld en Geluid | Open Beelden | Polygoon | NTS | US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Gefilmd door Rudolf Breslauer in 1944 , Kamp Westerbork, Nederland.
Dank vooral aan Aad Wagenaar, Cherry Duyns, Koert Broersma en Gerard Rossing voor hun Westerbork film onderzoek en verslaglegging, waarop de UNESCO documentatie is gebaseerd.
Film : WESTERBORK FILMS COLLECTION – UNESCO ALBUM (20200120) Michel van der Burg | Miracles.Media | Settela.com – CC BY 4.0 .

NEWS :
Jan. 20, 2020 – Tonight 8 PM the NOS dutch daily news broadcaster (reporter Ronja Hijmans) showed a newly discovered 6 sec Westerbork film clip – of a german guard in the camp – found by dutch image researcher Gerard Nijssen. In total currently 96 minutes of unique footage are known. Link https://nos.nl/nieuwsuur/artikel/2319497-nieuwe-beelden-van-iconische-westerborkfilm-gevonden.html ma 20 jan 2020

Flammable Films Bunker

Flammable Films Bunker
Former german bunker (Atlantic Wall) in the dunes along the North Sea near Scheveningen , The Hague, with special safes to store the flammable nitrate films of dutch history from the national dutch archive – historic films for safety reasons not allowed within built-up areas.
Here the Westerbork film footage also was examined in the 1990s for clues about the deportation trains and the name of the girl with the ‘working’ name Esther (by researcher Aad Wagenaar) – later to be identified as Settela.
Here a 1980 Polygoon newsreel on the restauration of this RVD archive bunker with new safes.

Credit
Source : Polygoon-Profilti (producer) / Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision (curator).
Film edit ‘Flammable Films Bunker’ (20191216) by Michel van der Burg | Settela.com – licensed CC BY-SA 4.0

Isolation of Islets of Langerhans for Transplantation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients


Isolation of Islets of Langerhans for Transplantation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients.
Here a film made of my ‘powerpoint’ presentation Feb 22, 2000 – on behalf of our Surgical Department – at the Opening Symposium of the Interdivisional GMP (‘Good Manufacturing Practice’) facility of the Leiden University Medical Centre – the LUMC in Leiden, Holland.

Background
I first started – with a background in biochemistry and philosophy – some 20 years earlier (from 1981) research at the Department of Surgery of the Leiden University Hospital (AZL) in the field of transplantation of the pancreas organ to cure diabetes.

Succesful Experiment Islet Transplantation
From 1986 my focus shifted to innovative procedures for the isolation out of the pancreas organ, of the ca 1 million islets of Langerhans – the insulin producing cell clumps with a size between ca 0.1 to 1 mm , that is 0.004 to 0,04 inch.
In 1989 we performed the first successful autologous transplantations in Holland (in collaboration with the Minneapolis Islet Lab with Jane Field and David Sutherland) – for the first time world-wide with pure islets using our novel procedure of using the organ preservation UW solution (University of Wisconsin / collaboration with dr Robert Carter , Du Pont, UK) during isolation in a pre-clinical large animal diabetes model – with long term transplant functioning with near-normal blood sugar regulation.

First series of human islet isolations , 1989-1990
Next in 1989-1990 we performed a first series of islet isolations from human donor pancreases using our novel techniques of isolation and purification in UW organ preservation solution – in association with a European Concerted Action for the Treatment of Diabetes – the Brussels headed (Daniel Pipeleers) ‘Multicenter program on the treatment of diabetes by islet cell transplantation’.

Exploring human islet work
Subsequently – after some years of exploring options for animal to human islet transplantation , using pig pancreas islets – so-called xenotransplantation – I was asked in 1997 to explore the requirements for operationalization of clinical islet transplantation in the LUMC. December 1997 our Surgical Department decided to go for it.

Establishing the human islet isolation laboratory in Leiden.
In 1998 after a month working in dr Camillo Ricordi’s Diabetes Research Institute in Miami, I started a large series of human islet isolation procedures in Leiden, and from september 1998 documenting the detailed GMP (‘Good Manufacturing Practice’) standard operating procedures, as well as ‘building’ our clinical islet isolation clean room with help from the Miami team in close cooperation with dr. Amon Wafelman (department of Clinical Pharmacy & Toxicology) managing the building of our brand new Interdivisional GMP-facility LUMC (IGFL) of six clean rooms and two chemical product laboratories – that was opened officially Feb 22, 2000 with the symposium, a film, and a tour in the GMP facility.
One year later the GMP islet facility was fully operational and summer 2001 we got a cautious green light (GMP license) for clinical transplantation of any high quality – approved – islet preparations.
Around the same time islet transplantation suddenly became very promising with ‘The Edmonton protocol’. However with the fast increase of logistic and financial demands, and reorganization between LUMC divisions it took till 2007 to finally start first transplants by an expanded islet team in the LUMC clinical islet center in Leiden.
Worldwide since 2000 several hundred people have received islet transplants that generally do not result in long term insulin independence , but do help sugar regulation in the transplant recipients.

Notes :
Links to some publications, news paper reports etc will follow later.

Updates:

Post updated with more details 20191215

Presentation ‘Isolation of Islets of Langerhans for Transplantation in Type-1 Diabetic Patients’ by Michel van der Burg, Feb 22, 2000 – Opening Symposium of the Interdivisional GMP facility of the Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, Netherlands. Film : 20191213 Michel van der Burg | miracles.media